Maria Montessori Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia

 Essay about Maria Montessori Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia


Maria Montessori ­ Wikipedia,  the free encyclopedia

Maria Montessori

From Wikipedia,  the free encyclopedia

Maria Tecla Artemesia Montessori (Italian

pronunciation: �[maˈria montesˈsɔri]; August 31,  1870 – May 6,  1952) was an Italian physician and educator

best known for the philosophy of education that bears her name,  and her writing on scientific pedagogy.  Her educational method is in use today in some public and private schools throughout the world.

Maria Montessori


1 Life and career

1 . 1 Birth and family

1 . 2 1883–1896:  Education

1 . 3 1896–1901:  Early career and family


Maria Tecla Artemesia Montessori

August 31,  1870

Chiaravalle,  Marche,  Italy


May 6,  1952 (aged 81)

Noordwijk,  South Holland,


Noordwijk,  Netherlands

1 . 7 1915–1939:  Further development of



Montessori education

Nationality Italian

1 . 8 1939–1946:  Montessori in India


1 . 4 1901–1906:  Further studies

1 . 5 1906–1911:  Casa dei Bambini and

the spread of Montessori's ideas

1 . 6 1909–1915:  International

recognition and growth of Montessori


1 ) 9 1946–1952:  The last years

2 Educational philosophy and pedagogy

University of Rome La Sapienza

Medical School

Occupation Physician and educator

Known for

Founder of the Montessori method of




2 . 4 Further development and


Mario Montessori Sr.

Montessori education today


2 . 1 Early influences

2 . 2 Scientific pedagogy

2 . 3 Casa dei Bambini

3 Montessori method

4 Works

5 Notes

6 References

7 External links



Maria Montessori ­ Wikipedia,  the free encyclopedia

Life and career

Birth and family

Montessori was born on August 31,  1870 in Chiaravalle, Italy.  Her father,  Alessandro Montessori,  33 years old at the time,  was an official of the Ministry of Finance working in the local state­run tobacco factory.  Her mother,  Renilde Stoppani,  25 years old,  was well educated for the times and was the great­niece of Italian geologist and paleontologist Antonio Stoppani.[1][2] While she did not have any particular mentor,  she was very close to her mother who readily encouraged her.  She also had a loving relationship with her daddy,  although he disagreed with her choice to continue her education.[3]

1883–1896:  Education

Early education

Italian 1000 Lire banknote (approx.  0. 52

The Montessori family moved to Florence in 1873 and then €) representing Maria Montessori.

to Rome in 1875 because of her father's work.  Montessori entered a public elementary school at the age of 6 in 1876. Her early school record was " not particularly noteworthy",[4] although she was awarded certificates for good behavior in the 1st grade and for " lavori donneschi",  or " women's work",  the next year.[5] Secondary school

In 1883[6] or 1884,[7] at the age of 13,  Montessori entered a secondary,  technical school,  Regia Scuola Tecnica Michelangelo Buonarroti,  where she studied Italian,  arithmetic,  algebra,  geometry,  accounting, background,  geography,  and sciences.  She graduated in 1886 with good grades and examination results.  That year,  at the age of 16,  she continued at the technical institute Regio Istituto Tecnico Leonardo da Vinci, studying Italian,  mathematics,  history,  geography,  geometric and ornate drawing,  physics,  chemistry, botany,  zoology,  and two foreign languages.  She did well in the sciences and especially in mathematics. She initially intended to pursue the study of engineering upon graduation,  an unusual aspiration for a woman in her time and place.  However,  by the time she graduated in 1890 at the age of 20,  with a certificate in physics–mathematics,  she had decided to study medicine instead,  an even more unlikely pursuit given cultural norms at the time.[8]

University of Rome—Medical school...

Sources: Flaherty,  T.  " Maria montessori(1870–1952)"

( Women 's Intellectual Contributions to the

Hainstock,  Elizabeth (1978).  The Essential Montessori.  New York:  The New American Library.

Kramer,  Rita (1976).  Maria Montessori.  Chicago:  University of Chicago Press.  p.  60.  ISBN 0­


Lillard,  Angeline (2005).  Montessori:  The Science Behind the Genius.  New York:  Oxford

University Press.  ISBN 0­19­516868­2.

Lillard,  Paula Polk (1972).  Montessori:  A Modern Approach.  New York:  Schocken Books.

Lillard,  Paula Polk (1996).  Montessori Today.  New York:  Schocken Books.

Montessori,  Maria (1948).  The Discovery of the Child.  Madras:  Kalkshetra Publications Press.

Montessori,  Maria (1949).  The Absorbent Mind.  Madras:  Theosophical Publishing House.

Montessori,  Maria (1914).  Dr.  Montessori 's Own Handbook.  New York:  Frederick A.  Stokes


Montessori,  Maria (1912).  The Montessori Method.  New York:  Frederick A.  Stokes Company.

Montessori,  Maria (1936).  The Secret of Childhood.  New York:  Longmans,  Green.

Standing,  E. M.  (1957).  Maria Montessori:  Her Life and Work.  New York:  Plume.  ISBN 0­452­


Trabalzini,  Paola (Spring 2011).  " Maria Montessori Through the Seasons of the Method".  The

NAMTA Journal 36 (2).

Photos of Maria Montessori (1913–1951) (

Works by Maria Montessori (,+Maria) at Project

1952%22%20OR%20description%3A%22Maria%20Montessori%22%29) at Internet Archive

Works by Maria Montessori ( at LibriVox (public domain


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